Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of
New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven
hundred and eighty nine
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of
their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to
prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further
declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as
extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will
best ensure the beneficent starts of its institution.
RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses
concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the
Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the
Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles,
when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid
to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.
ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the
United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the
Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of
the original Constitution.
* First Amendment - Establishment Clause, Free Exercise Clause;
freedom of speech, of the press, Freedom of Religion, and of
assembly; right to petition,
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom
of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of
* Second Amendment - Militia (United States), Sovereign state, Right
to keep and bear arms.
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to
the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and
bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
* Third Amendment - Protection from quartering of troops.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house,
without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a
manner to be prescribed by law.
* Fourth Amendment - Protection from unreasonable search and
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses,
papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,
shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon
probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly
describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be
* Fifth Amendment - due process, double jeopardy,
self-incrimination, eminent domain.
No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise
infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand
Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the
Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor
shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in
jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal
case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life,
liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private
property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
* Sixth Amendment - Trial by jury and rights of the accused;
Confrontation Clause, speedy trial, public trial, right to counsel
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and
district where in the crime shall have been committed, which
district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be
informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted
with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for
obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of
Counsel for his defense.
* Seventh Amendment - Civil trial by jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and
no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court
of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
* Eighth Amendment - Prohibition of excessive bail and cruel and
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed,
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
* Ninth Amendment - Protection of rights not specifically enumerated
in the Bill of Rights.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
* Tenth Amendment - Powers of States and people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States
respectively, or to the people.
The United States Constitution ©
1791 United Stated of America
All Rights Reserved Worldwide